AP Chem Review - IMFs and Bonding (2024)

VSEPR Theory

Lewis Diagrams





What is the molecular geometry where the central atom is bonded to four other atoms with no lone pairs?



What are the steps to drawing a Lewis-dot structure?

1. Find the sum of valence electrons of all atoms/ions in the molecule.
2. The central atom is the least electronegative element that isn’t hydrogen. Connect the outer atoms to it by single bonds.
3. Fill the octets of the outer atoms.
4. Fill the octet of the central atom.
5. If you run out of electrons before the central atom has an octet, form multiple bonds until it does


What is a reliable way to find the hybridization of an atom?

Find the total number of electron domains (number of atoms bonded to it and lone pairs). If it's 4, then its sp3, 3 is sp2, 2 is sp, and if 1 the atom is most likely hydrogen.


All molecules experience what intermolecular force?

London Dispersion Forces


SF4 is an example of what type of molecular geometry?



How many lone pairs of electrons exist on the following molecule?


A) 11 B) 10 C) 9 D) 1 E) 0


AP Chem Review - IMFs and Bonding (1)Boron can have a violated octet (6 e-) and each F has 3 lone pairs for a total of 9 pairs of unpaired electrons


If the central atom has four electron pairs, what is the hybridization?



Rank the IMFs in order from weakest to strongest.

Dispersion forces, Dipole-Dipole forces, hydrogen bonding, and Ion-Dipole forces


What is created when a polar covalent bond causes slight charges on each atom?



The O-C-O bond angle in the CO32- ion is approximately __________.

A) 120° B) 60° C) 90° D) 109.5° E) 180°


Because CO32- is trigonal planar in shape, the bond angle will be 120°.


What are some instances where the octet rule is violated?

1. Species with Odd Numbers of Electrons

2. Incomplete Octets (too few valence electrons)

3. Expanded Octets (central atom has more than eight valence electrons in a Lewis structure)


A carbonyl carbon is double bonded to an oxygen atom, as well as two other substituents. What type of hybrid orbitals are present on the carbonyl carbon?



List the IMFs found in HBr.

Dipole-Dipole forces, LDFs


Which of the following molecules has the shortest bond length?

A) N2 B) O2 C) Cl2D) Br2 E) I2

A) N2

There is triple bond between N and N so it has shortest bond length compared to the other molecules


The F-B-F bond angle in the BF3 molecule is __________.

A) 109.5° B) 120° C) 180° D) 60° E) 90°


Due to the trigonal planar geometry, the F-B-F bond angle is 120°


Which of the following compounds contains an atom that does NOT satisfy the octet rule?

I. BCl3 II. CO2 III. NO3- IV. NO2

A) I and IV B) I, II, and IV C) IV only D) II and III


BCl3 has 6 electrons around boron, while NO2 only has 7 electrons around the central nitrogen.


What is the orbital hybridization of SF6?



As the IMFs increase, list properties of a substance that also increase.

Melting and Boiling Points, Surface Tension, Viscosity, and Heat of Vaporization


TRUE/FALSE: Can the bonds of a molecule be polar yet the polarity of the molecule itself be nonpolar?



Why is I3- linear?

The central iodine atom is paired to two other iodine atoms with 3 lone pairs. However the lone pairs are of equatorial distance, and bonded on an axis linearly.


Based on formal charge considerations, which of the following would likely be the correct arrangement of atoms in nitrosyl chloride: ClNO or ClON?

CINO. The formal charges are minimized to the fullest extent; all atoms have a formal charge of zero.


Molecule XOp5 has a trigonal bipyramidal shape. What type of hybridization describes its bonds?



The melting point of H2O(s) is 0 °C. Would you expect the melting point of H2S(s) to be −85 °C, 0 °C, or 185 °C?

−85 °C. Water has stronger hydrogen bonds so it melts at a higher temperature.


Exceptions to the fact that lone pairs on the central atom make a molecule polar.

Trigonal planar with three lone pairs

Octahedral with two lone pairs

AP Chem Review - IMFs and Bonding (2024)
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